Development Opportunities in Northern Sankhuwasabha: Views of NGOs’ Activists

Institute of Cultural Nepal (ICA Nepal) joined hands with NPO Nepal Volunteer Service to distribute educational and healthcare materials along with Need Assessment at the Northern Part of Sankhuwasabha and Makalu-Barun Areas. The 6-day trip remained fascinating and unforgettable. We started off this beautiful road journey with our colleagues, enjoying the marvelous landscapes bounded by nature. It approximately took us 2days to reach Khadbari along with some short visits to Khotang Haleshi Temple, and some renowned places of Nepal such as Diktel, Okhaldhunga, Sindhuli, Hile, Mid Hill Highway that connects the eastern border to the western border of Nepal, running through different important townships, settlements and other places of approximately 1776 Km, etc. The trip remained very refreshing; however, the road construction was still being carried out at most of the parts, leading to some disturbance.

Khadbari was surrounded by breathtaking scenery and mountain views, the local people were also very kind and innocent; additionally, they welcomed us with great hospitality. The next day, we headed towards the Barun. On our way to Barun, we distributed some health relief materials such as sanitary napkins, soap, sanitizers, masks, COVID prevention posters at Paukhola Health Post, Karmarang. They also enlightened us about the conditions of health posts and requirements for Medical Equipment such as beds and generators in Karmarang and other health centers as well. Next, we supported some educational materials at Shree Krishna Higher Secondary School, Gola. The students there need to take a long 3-4 hour route and come to study. They lack nutritious lunch and a good place to live. The Need Assessment concluded that they require proper Hostels, especially for girls. The day-to-day activities of these students have been very troublesome. To gain Higher Studies they further need to visit different other places that take around 6 -7 hours on foot as there are no other means of transportation and are forced to drop out of school even though they wish to study more and reduce the illiteracy/ poverty rate of the village. It took us almost 10hours to reach Barun. 

On the auspicious occasion of Magh-1, the local people tend to visit Barun to take Holy Bath and attend the local fair. The water comes from Shiva Parvati Dhara and is said to be very sacred. People travel for over a day and hours to attend the fair. They stay up all night to light up the diyo-batti and involve each other in other activities such as cultural dancing, having fun, drinking, and shopping. The electricity and transportation are not reached in the very place along with accommodation disturbance. People light up torch lights and tuki to eliminate dark. The religious tolerance and social clubs were highly seen at the place where people adapting different ethnic groups i.e Sherpa, Magar as well as horizontal groups were seen there. The houses are most likely to collapse as many of them are constructed using local bamboo, and woods. The next day, people take a holy bath early in the morning and return to their house with a great time. Reportedly, the fair carries a lot of faith and beliefs of local people as many people including children, and the elderly were seen traveling for a day or two and look forward to attending these in the near future as well.

On the fourth day, we worshipped the Barun river and headed to Ekuwa Village. Alaichi`s farming was highly observed as a source of income generation. Due to Alaichi farming, people tend to farm fewer cash crops and buy overdue rice from India at a low price. The Alaichi cultivation could be diversified with Kiwi, Coffee, and other farming. The locals highly consume junk foods; neglects farming fresh cash crops as it requires hard work and more care. The children would rather eat noodles and biscuits than rice and vegetables. Every day, more and more housewives find it easier to cook instant noodles and serve their families. During our visit to Ekuwa village, we stopped by another school and distributed educational materials to the students. The students welcomed us with ‘Khada’ and ‘Mala’. Further, we trekked for 7-8 hours and crossed some of the dangerous landscapes, looking at the beauty of nature and mountains. On the way, we met an adorable 9-year-old girl, Sandhya, returning from the fair. We were going on the same route; next, she showed us the way to the village. The landscapes were very dangerous for us to cross but for her, it was a piece of cake. She also told that when she was a child she used to visit this forest to fetch grass for her cattle. The local people prefer walking rather than taking the mode of transportation as they have rare visits on the vehicle, they tend to get dizzy, and nauseous. The old women were seen taking the wool off to make clothes further. We also met a 16-year old boy, Nima who was returning to his home on occasion after being far away to gain an education. After our conversation with him, he told us that he want to get further education and do something good by utilizing local resources for his locality rather than going abroad. He was very kind and helped us with our loads as well.

In Ekuwa, the students and teachers were waiting for our arrivals with hands full of Mala, Khada, and Flowers at Ekuwa Basic School. After the successful distribution of educational and healthcare materials, we held a meeting with the School’s Representative. Next, the local people lit up huge woods for fire and showed us their cultural dance, music, and local dishes. We were very grateful for all the love and support they provided us with. The locals were seen carrying heavy loads due to a lack of transportation. They also need to carry the sick people in their back due to lack of healthcare posts. During our visit, the people were expecting of getting more than just donations. We also observed discrimination as Dalits were not allowed to enter the kitchen whereas other ethnic groups were warmly welcomed inside the house. Every night, people would gather at certain places to have drinks, food and spend time. They use solar power as a source of electricity. The unmanaged water source has also been causing problems in the area as livestock pollute the water. The construction of the reservoir was considered essential.

On the fifth day, we hiked for around 6 hours and reached a scared cave at Sisne. The cave was founded by the local children while chasing bats. The cave carries a lot of cultural faith among the local people. Every day, the cave welcomes 50-60 people fasting and worshiping gods inside the cave as Ganesh, Shiva-Parvat, Naag, Ram-Sita, Hanuman. The cave remained a very memorable and breathtaking adventure for us. Next, we returned to Khadbari by vehicle. We also saw a bunch of people visiting Dobhan for the next fair, those who cannot go to Makalu Barun, go to Dobhan. It also showed high religious tolerance and unity of people. The people had no greed and were willing to invest their time in the holistic development of the locality. 

On the 6th day, we went to Manakamana Temple, the priest enlightened us with its details and after that, we took a flight to Kathmandu with great learnings and new experiences. The trip will forever be treasured by each one of us. During the visit, the travel plan, team spirit, and commitment to achieve the goal made it possible and we are forever grateful for the acknowledgments. After the visit, we wish to develop proposals and draw more attention regarding this subject matter.

Prepared by: Swikriti Parajuli

I’m a student and I believe in learning and sharing. Besides community development, I’m passionate about arts, music, and sports. 

ICA Nepal is an experienced team dedicated to working in the field of human capacity building, and community development through advanced methods. It pursues to recognize people’s initiation, creativity, and enthusiasm in bringing sustainable development by considering existing cultural dynamics and pluralities. It is committed to creating an environment, in which the opportunity to participate and the construction of sustainable change and development is foremost.

Institute of Innovation and Quality Assurance (IIQA)

Institute of Innovation and Quality Assurance (IIQA) is one of the renowned organizations in Nepal for supporting organizations to ensure quality in their products, services, process, and systems. Since 2010, IIQA has been active in certification, auditing, implementation, training, consulting, innovation, third-party inspection, and more. They collectively aim to promote and practice internationally recognized practices for quality and innovation, enabling organizations to implement quality standards in Nepal.

IIQA  has been providing accredited Third-party Assessment, Registration & Certification services of Quality Management System (ISO 9001: 2015), Environmental Management System (ISO14001:2015), Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSAS 18001:2007/ ISO 45001:2018),  Medical Devices- Quality Management Systems (ISO 14385:2016), 27001:2013 – Information Security Management systems and ISO 22001:2018- Food Safety Management Systems, etc. For the Third-party certification of various ISO standards, IIQA is working as a Nepal Representative of MOODY Inspection and Assurance Ltd. Moody Inspection and Assurance Ltd is a leading provider of assessment, inspection, certification, and training. MOODY is accredited by multiple International accreditation bodies around the world & managed by highly dedicated & experienced professionals delivering high-quality services to help clients meet the growing challenges of quality, safety, environmental protection, and social responsibility. 

IIQA believes that the establishment of a Quality Management System in an organization helps the organization to develop overall performance indicators and use them as benchmarks for monitoring and improving performance by unearthing hidden problems. Further development of a continual improvement culture will generate additional benefits coming out of implementing a Quality Management System. The process approach of the Quality Management System will help to organize and plan the work of the organization as a series of interrelated interacting activities and achieve systematically. Developing Documented Procedures is an important tool for reducing process variability that forces people to think critically about their actions. 

The Institute of Innovation and Quality Assurance on the behalf of Moody Inspection and Assurance has been conducting different ISO Certification processes in Nepal. IIQA recently conducted a certification audit of Just Nepal Foundation and provided them with ISO 9001 certification leading them to be the first NGO in Nepal to get certified under this standard in Nepal. 

IIQA has been facilitating various training sessions to bring more insights on ISO Standards in Nepal together with different expertise recognized nationally and globally. IIQA provides a three-day intensive training program on Environmental Assessment concerning EPA 2076 and EPR 2077. Environmental Assessment is an important tool to inform decision-makers, regulators, and stakeholders, about the possible environmental, social, and economic costs of the proposed project, to be effective, it requires the active involvement of all concerned stakeholders. IIQA believes that there is a genuine need to develop the capacity of all concerned stakeholders including regulators to screen and scope the EA process, conduct transparent public consultations, and evaluate the EA reports. The session remained very informative with great insights and higher competency for the sustainability of any sort of project in a holistic manner along with the active participation of the attendee.

The Training on Risk Management Awareness and Implementation in Financial Co-operatives primarily based on ISO 31000 was highly dedicated for all mid-to-advanced managers who implement or maintain management systems that may benefit from understanding how risk can be used as a management tool and how it affects their organization. As a proven methodology, risk management is a systematic framework and process for maximizing those areas where outcomes can be controlled while minimizing those that cannot be predicted and over which control cannot be exercised. The training provided participants with the awareness of the need to start managing the organization’s risks effectively.

International Trade Centre (ITC) has organized a Quality champions program in Nepal to develop a network of quality champions to create a pool of trainers and advisors on quality management, food safety, and market access through compliance with legal and technical requirements of the market.  In this regard, Ms. Enusha Khadka CEO of IIQA had been also selected as Quality champion for various programs and is being trained using the latest tools and techniques for ensuring quality and food safety in a business and implementing quality improvement projects in enterprises, and serving the SMEs of Nepal in long run.

IIQA participated in the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP26) in Glasgow that started on 31 October 2021. Nearly 200 countries came together in hope of finding a joint answer to the global challenges posed by climate change. As standards are crucial in underpinning the global economy, creating trust in all aspects of international trade is critical. The ISO has several standards that are essential in supporting the climate agenda, helping in the adaptation of climate change, quantifying GHG emissions, and promoting the dissemination of good practices in environmental management. IIQA's CEO, Ms.Khadka attended the event and shared how ISO had committed to combat climate change through standards to achieve the climate agenda by 2050 and about the London Declaration.
IIQA also provides quality, independent and impartial inspection services to ensure that the compliance of your product is as per specification, standards, customer’s expectations, International codes, environmental and social norms. Under these services, IIQA is serving as an inspection partner for various Import companies of the USA and Europe, Korea who are importing handicrafts, pashmina products from Nepal. Besides this, the company also access the quality of imported goods to Nepal.

International Organization of Standardization (ISO) is globally renowned for producing a proven global benchmark of standardization. IIQA has strong competency in improving the quality of academic institutes such as schools, colleges, training centers, etc. It provides training on various themes of quality management appropriate to the academic institutes and also supports such organizations on getting ISO certification. IIQA helps them to get ISO 21001 certification which specifies requirements for a management system for educational organizations (EOMS). Implementing an EOMS and becoming ISO 21001:2018 certified will enable your organization to:
  • Increase value for learners and other beneficiaries
  • Increase its ability to respond to the demands of interested parties
  • Increase the satisfaction of learners and other beneficiaries
  • Enhance its reputation
  • Improve learner motivation and engagement
  • Improve the acquisition and development of competences
  • Widen access to education for learners with different learning styles, with different needs, and from different backgrounds
  • Enhance learner personal development, initiatives, and creativity

Prepared by: Swikriti Parajuli

I’m a student and I believe in learning and sharing. Besides community development, I’m passionate about arts, music, and sports. 


NGOs in Nepal are committed to investigating alternative energy sources, supporting local economic projects, and promoting gender equality, and more for holistic development. With the globalization of modern times, international interests and concerns draw Nepal into contact with more distant corners of the world. There is now a multitude of non-governmental organizations working in Nepal, mostly headquartered in the Kathmandu Valley. According to the 2019 report, there is a total number of 50,358 NGOs in Nepal with 25,992 registered in Province 3. It is estimated that there are more than 15, 000 NGOs working in various sectors in Nepal. Some are international NGOs and some are purely Nepali, some are long-running whereas some are start-ups. The evolutionary process of NGOs in Nepal from a historical perspective has rather been slow compared to the rest of the world. There are very limited references related to the concept of institutionalization of social service in Nepal. The first pioneering social institution in the history of the social service sector of Nepal was ‘Gandhi Memorial Charkha Pracharak Guthi.’ Many people see NGOs as the representatives who are working for transformation in the country. Despite thousands of NGOs and significant amounts of foreign aid, Nepal remains one of the poorest countries in South Asia. The case of Nepal indicates that aid and donor support alone are insufficient for sustained development. There are over 70,000 NGOs in Nepal, but only 20% are functionally active. That is due to the lack of long-term planning and research.

In general, low-income countries like Nepal have weak governance; poor resources, and high unemployment. These countries have inadequate national budgets to support universal health and education coverage and rely on the support of private organizations. Over time these NGOs have become fertile land for the growth of the nation. Due to remoteness and poverty in the different regions of Nepal, the government itself cannot go to all remote and deprived areas proportionally, therefore, the NGOs/INGO easily entered and penetrated in such locations, and they wanted and unwanted activities have spread all over the country. As society forged ahead and advanced the scope, the role of NGOs has broadened its realm become all social problem-poverty sickness, suffering, and social disorganizations have existed throughout human history. Exposure to a series of unwanted activities of INGOs forced the government and people to consider seriously regulating them. Thereafter, there have been lots of criticism, comments, discussion, and arguments on the governing system and behavior of NGOs/INGOs. They created their expensive structures in districts, instead, encouraging local communities to perform. The issue of good governance and the transparency of the donor community were raised. It is found that INGOs and donor communities issue directives of their respective country and organizations instead of the needs of the government and people of Nepal.

Operation of NGOs in Nepal

NGOs play an important role in the national development of the country. Public welfare activities are based on the tradition of gaining religious merit and fame, promoting the welfare of others, and assisting the people. NGOs in Nepal rely heavily on foreign aid, and donors coordinate development aid policy through the Nepal Development Forum, whose members include donor countries, international financial institutions (such as the World Bank), and inter-governmental organizations (such as the United Nations). The United Kingdom is Nepal's largest bilateral aid donor and the World Bank and Asian Development Bank are the largest multilateral donors. Some of the INGOs based in Nepal also rely heavily on their global brother/sister organization for funding. Different NGOs make themselves accessible by making their Websites to start a Non-Profit Organization in Nepal. One can quickly and very easily attract volunteers and donors and also provide information to your potential beneficiaries’ through the website. They also continue building networks with persons in regional and international communities. The connections with people, local government, funding organizations, religious organizations, and other places that can relate closely to your NGO’s work, and will be the funding source in the near successive future. 

Formulation of NGO in Nepal

The registration is a small yet very important part to start a Non-Profit Organization in Nepal. Every NGO in Nepal is registered at the District Administration Office (“DAO”) of the relevant district where the NGO is to be established. Further, tax registration must be done at the Inland Revenue Department following the completion of registration at the DAO. After the registration at the DAO, an affiliation certificate can be obtained from the Social Welfare Council. The Social Welfare Council Act, 1992 was enacted, replacing the then SSNCC Act, 1977. According to this act, the Social Welfare Council (SWC) was constituted as a governmental agency to look after the NGO affairs both externally assisted and traditional self-supported. The governing laws for NGOs are as follows: 

  • Social Welfare Act 1992; 
  • Associations Registration Act 1977; and 
  • Relevant guidelines adopted by the Social Welfare Council.

Role in civil society

NGOs in Nepal often aim to promote understanding between citizens and the state. NGOs contribute to civil society by providing a means to actively express and address the diverse and complex needs of society. It motivates citizens in all aspects of society to act instead of relying on state power and charity. NGO activities include, but are not limited to, environmental, social, advocacy, and human rights work. They can work to promote social or political change on a broad scale or very locally. NGOs play a vital role in the development of society, improving communities, and promoting civic participation through proper utilization of available resources aiming at holistic development.

Challenges faced by NGOs in Nepal

In today's competitive and dynamic world it generates challenges for all the participating organizations working for the uplifting and bringing change. Nevertheless, non-governmental organizations face specific obstacles regarding their particular nature. Some of the most frequent challenges are as follows:

  1. Difficulties to get funds: The majority of NGOs are on the verge of extinction due to experiencing difficulties in getting enough, and continuous funding to do their work. Getting donors is a hard task, and sometimes dealing with some specific donor’s funding conditions can be an enormous challenge for NGOs. Additionally, most non-governmental organizations have a high level of dependency on donors’ funds, which makes them even more susceptible to donor performance.
  2. Lack of proper networking: Most of the NGOs have high difficulties with the network which leads to a lack of communication if the non-governmental organizations do not disclose what they are doing for a certain community. The efforts can be duplicated, conflicts about the ways a certain problem should be faced in a region could arise, and they could be missing the opportunity to learn best practices from other NGOs. The lack of a proper networking environment in an organization leads to misleading decisions and the collapse of the institution.
  3. Lack of governance: Having a Board is one of the best ways to achieve good levels of governance, nevertheless, there is a significant number of NGOs that do not have a good understanding of governance, and do not think governance is relevant for their organizations. Several non-governmental organizations do not have a Board, one of the main reasons for that is the difficulty to attract board members without paying them or offering them any benefits.  In addition, some NGOs’ funds are poorly managed because they do not have proper accounting and analysis to use the funds according to the instructions of the NGO owners.
  4. Poor technical awareness: In today's technological world, various NGOs are still unaware of its functions and tools, which has a huge impact on the sustainability of their organizations. NGOs in Nepal are still struggling to keep up with the pace of the modern world, and some donors do not have their websites and sources for the information, where Nepali NGOs face difficulties in getting access to hundreds of thousands of opportunities and are compelled to miss one.
Non-governmental organizations face multiple challenges, but one of the most important steps to overcome these obstacles is to identify what are challenges that an organization is facing, and the areas where there is room to improve, after identifying these key areas organizations can design a plan to improve, and hopefully overcome the obstacles they are facing. 

Prepared by: Swikriti Parajuli

I’m a student and I believe in learning and sharing. Besides community development, I’m passionate about arts, music, and sports. 

ICA Nepal is an experienced team dedicated to working in the field of human capacity building, and community development through advanced methods. It pursues to recognize people’s initiation, creativity, and enthusiasm in bringing sustainable development by considering existing cultural dynamics and pluralities. It is committed to creating an environment, in which the opportunity to participate and the construction of sustainable change and development is foremost.


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